Transplantology is a branch of medicine that studies the questions and issues of organs transplantation, as well as the perspectives of artificial organs creation.
The following types of transplantation are distinguished:
A transplant operation is needed in case when an organ or a part of body loses the capability to perform its functions. This may be caused by a congenital abnormality, a disease or a serious trauma, intoxication (liver transplantation). Fire victims often get transplanted their own intact skin on the burnt areas.
Donor’s and recipient’s health
Compatibility of donor and recipient
Before the operation, the donor and recipient immune system data is carefully studied and compared to establish compatibility to prevent a rejection reaction and other possible complications.
Currently, donor selection is performed based on two main antigen systems:
What a rejection reaction means
Rejection is an inflammatory affection of a transplanted organ (transplant) caused by a specific response of the recipient's immune system to the donor’s transplantation antigens.
Despite the measures taken to select the most genetically congenial donor for each recipient, it is not possible to achieve a complete genotype identity; recipients may experience a rejection reaction after operations. When performing autotransplantation operations, in case when the donor and the recipient are one and the same person, the danger of a rejection reaction is rare. The more compatible the recipient and the donor are, the less frequently the rejection occurs.
To prevent organ rejection after transplantation, a pharmacological/medical immunosuppression is performed in the recipient to reduce the efficacy of the immune system. In a noncomplicated progress, relatively small doses of drugs are used according to special schedules. In case of graft-versus-host disease progress, the dosage of immunosuppressive agents is significantly increased, their combination is changed.
The patients should remember that the immunosuppression leads to a significant increase of risk of infectious postoperative complications.
The natural rejection reactions, occurring in human body after transplantation, are suppressed by drugs. The patient, whom an organ had been transplanted in, will remain under physician’s care for the rest of his life.
İt is theoretically possible to transplant any organ. But in fact, the possibilities are limited. Nowadays only some types of organs are transplantable and make possible transplant operations to be performed.
Currently the organ transplantation of liver, kidney, heart, lung and pancreas is performed, as well as endocrine glands’ tissue and cell cultures transplantation, bone marrow transplantation.
Les reins sont les organes couplés les plus importants dans le système urinaire humain. Ils participent à la formation de l’urine.
Qu’est-ce le foie et quelles sont ses fonctions vitales ?
Qu’est-ce que la moelle osseuse et quelles fonctions vitales remplit-elle ?