Obesity is the disease of the modern age. Increased stress, decreased motility combined with bad dietary habits it is becoming the top three morbidity and mortality reasons of modern life. Obesity not only causesa negative bod image but also facilitates onset of chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disorders and even some forms of cancer.
Bariatric surgery (weight loss surgery) includes a variety of procedures performed on people who have obesity. Weight loss is achieved by reducing the size of the stomach with a gastric band or through removal of a portion of the stomach (sleeve gastrectomy or biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch) or by resecting and re-routing the small intestine to a small stomach pouch (gastric bypass surgery).
Long-term studies show the procedures cause significant long-term loss of weight, recovery from diabetes, improvement in cardiovascular risk factors, and a reduction in mortality of 23% from 40%.
Bariatric surgery is recommended for obese people with a body mass index (BMI) of at least 40, and for people with BMI of at least 35 and serious coexisting medical conditions such as diabetes. However, research is emerging that suggests bariatric surgery could be appropriate for those with a BMI of 35 to 40 with no comorbidities or a BMI of 30 to 35 with significant comorbidities.
Generally accepted adverse effect ratios due to abdominal surgery is also valid for bariatric surgery. Complications tend to be higher in morbid obese patients. Patients must be fully compliant with their surgeons and physicians following the surgery since durgs used for comorbidities such as diabetes must be adjusted. Also dietary habits must be changed and adjusted due to changed gastrointestinal system anatomy. Dietary regulations and feeding frequencies will differ according to the technique used and these will be discussed once the operaiton is planned and the technique will be decided.
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