Obesity is the disease of the modern age. Increased stress, decreased motility combined with bad dietary habits it is becoming the top three morbidity and mortality reasons of modern life. Obesity not only causes a negative body image but also facilitates onset of chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disorders and even some forms of cancer.
Bariatric surgery (weight loss surgery) includes a variety of procedures performed on people who suffer from obesity. Weight loss is primarily achieved by reducing the size of the stomach with a gastric band (sleeve gastrectomy) or through the removal of a portion of the stomach (biliopancreatic diversal with duodenal switch). It can also be achieved by redirecting the small intestine to a small stomach pouch (gastric bypass surgery).
Long-term studies show that these procedures can produce significant long-term weight loss, recovery from diabetes, the improvement of cardiovascular risk factors, and a reduction in mortality rates from 40% to 23%.
Who Is It For?
Bariatric surgery is recommended for obese people who have a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or above, and for people with a BMI of 35 or above but who have serious medical conditions like diabetes. However, research is increasingly suggesting that those with a BMI of 35 to 40 without other medical conditions might also benefit to a large extent, and that this is also true of those with a BMI of 30 to 35 who have other significant medical conditions.
Important Points/Adverse Effects
The rates and types of complications associated with bariatric surgeries are broadly the same as with any abdominal surgery. However, complications tend to be higher for morbidly obese patients. Patients must be fully compliant with their surgeon's and their physician's advice following their surgery, and the drugs they take for any pre-existing conditions like diabetes may have to be adjusted. Also, dietary habits must be changed to account for the new gastrointestinal system's anatomy. Dietary regulations and eating frequencies will differ according to the techniques used, and will be discussed once the operation is planned and the techniques have been determined.