Kidneys are the most important paired organs of the human urinary track system, by means of urine formation function. One kidney weight varies from 120 to 200 g. The kidneys are located in the retroperitoneal space to the right and left of the spine. Their main function is the filtration of blood plasma followed by the urine formation. The human kidneys secrete about 1-1,5 l of urine per day.
The most important functions of kidneys:
- purification of blood plasma from nitrogenous metabolic products (urea, uric acid, creatinine);
- removal from the body of foreign toxic molecular entities (e.g.: the release of substances formed as a result of drugs breakdown);
- maintaining a constant volume of intercellular fluid in organs and tissues, i.e. homeostasis, which provides constant support of the whole body systems’ functions;
- maintaining a constant concentration of electrolytes, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, chlorine and calcium;
- regulation of blood pressure (it is for this reason that certain heart diseases become a consequence of diseases of the urinary system);
- participation in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. In the process of reverse filtration these compounds are reabsorbed from primary urine;
- participation in hematopoiesis (erythropoietin).
If kidneys stop functioning properly, this process leads to imbalance and disorder of vital activity of the whole organism, as well as to increasing of toxins in blood. Kidney disorders are virulent because of the fact, that without the necessary treatment they become chronic and irreversible and lead to the ulterior functional abnormality. Some of them can be curable only by organ transplantation.
Kidney transplantation is a surgical operation which is to transplant a kidney to the patient (recipient), donated by other human (donor).
Such type of operation is meant to be used as a method of substitutive renal therapy at the end-stage of the chronic kidney disease which is impossible to cure without transplantation of a donor organ.
Indications for kidney transplantation:
- chronic pyelonephritis (reflux nephropathy);
- hereditary kidney diseases;
- congenital kidney diseases;
- metabolic kidney damages;
- obstructive nephropathy;
- toxic nephropathy;
- systemic diseases;
- hemolytic-uremic syndrome;
- kidney tumors;
- irreversible kidney disease;
- kidney injury.
Contraindications to kidney transplantation:
- The donor transplant is not immunologically suitable for transplantation. A reaction with lymphocytes is observed, which leads to the inevitable rejection of the transplanted kidney.
- There are malignant tumors of the kidneys and other organs if the treatment has not been carried out or the period after its end is less than two years. The exceptions to this are asymptomatic kidney tumors that are effectively treated. Then the waiting time approaches zero. And conversely, the waiting and follow-up period increases up to 5 years, if there has been carried out a tumor treatment on the cervix, breast cancer or melanoma treatment.
- Presence of infection in the body (except of hepatitis С and B).
- Decompensation of chronic diseases of any organ. Heart failure, peptic ulcer, diabetes mellitus being examples.
- Failure to follow the doctor's instructions. After kidney transplantation you will need to take certain medications in a timely and regular way, without which a rejection of the donor kidney will happen.
- All kinds of psychosis with personality changes (schizophrenia, epilepsy, alcoholism, drug addiction).
What does a kidney transplantation represent and what stages does it consist of?
Kidney transplantation consists of donor and recipient stages:
Donor stage – stage of donor selection
The donor selection is being carried out. This can be relatives, who’s both kidneys are healthy and there are no infectious diseases (hepatitis, HIV). At the same time the blood group, genetic materials, age and other criteria are checked on compatibility. From a living relative donor the kidney is recovered laparoscopically, that is, with minimal trauma and subsequent rapid rehabilitation of the donor.
Who can be a kidney donor?
In Turkey kidney recovery for international patients is being made from living relative donors. Living donors are the persons who voluntary donate their paired organ (or a part of a whole organ) for transplantation in the recipient.
A personal assistant supplied by Remed Assistance will welcome you at the airport, accompany you to the hospital and do the necessary translation in order to guarantee a worry-free medical trip experience in Turkey.
Directly transplantation itself is being carried out at this stage.
Preoperative stage and diagnostics
Before the kidney transplantation operation, the recipient and the donor undergo an extensive examination, a detailed check-out of tissues compatibility, in order to avoid a rejection. A diagnostic combined program shall be individually selected and include as follows:
- blood group, Rh factor;
- (complete and biochemical) blood tests;
- screening for viral and bacterial diseases;
- serologic assay.
Instrumental methods of diagnosis
- ultrasonography and kidney Doppler sonography;
- X-ray of kidneys and urinary bladder;
- 24-hour blood pressure and ECG monitoring (donor over 40 years old).
A few days before transplantation, patients are recommended to follow a special diet. The donor kidney is removed by open or laparoscopic surgery. Kidney transplantation is performed under general anesthesia. The operation lasts from 3 to 8 hours. After the access is made, the donor kidney is placed into the iliac fossa, anastomoses of the kidney vessels are formed with the iliac vessels, the donor ureter is implanted into the bladder or an anastomosis with the recipient’s ureter is formed. Therewith, the recipient’s own kidneys nearly always remain in their original places and won’t be excised. After the kidney is transplanted, the surgical wound is sutured layer by layer. A cosmetic stitch is applied to the skin.
After kidney transplantation the patient usually stays for circa 2 to 5 days in the intensive care unit, and averagely in 10 to 15 days, under favorable postoperative period progress, is discharged from the in-patient department. The stitches and retention bridges are removed in 10-14 days. The patient has to stay in Turkey until the fact is established that the operation was successful and there is no organ rejection. At this time, the patient will need to undergo medical tests and visit the attending physician. It is recommended to refrain from physical exertion and keep a diet personally developed by our doctors.
Beginning with the post-transplantation day, the patient starts taking specific drugs – immunosuppressors – lifelong in order to prevent a donor organ rejection. Every two weeks the patients visit the transplantation center to undergo medical tests, to carry out an abdominal ultrasonography.
Kidney transplantation in Turkey
The transplantation issues in Turkey are settled in terms of legislation. The international patients in Turkey are allowed to transplant kidney from living relative donor.
The advantages of treatment in Turkey:
You may get recommendations and treatment plan from the medical specialists of the top clinics of Turkey, as well as an alternative opinion regarding the provided or only assigned treatment from the medical specialists of the top clinics.
The advantages of treatment in Turkey are: top-class medical treatment and reasonable prices.
The clinics of Turkey work in accordance with global standards using the best practices of collegues from Europe and USA as well as their own unique experience. Turkey is among the countries that are top requested for treatment.
The citizens of a series of countries are attracted by reasonable prices and a high treatment level in Turkey.
In turkish clinics a psychological comfort and a real kindness of all the medical personnel is guaranteed to the patients.
Departure from airport
You will be accompanied to the airport by a personal assistance. By provided flight authorization and medical report, you will take your flight to home!
After your return, Remedhealth.com agents will be available for any future request.