Coronary artery bypass surgery, also called as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, pronounced "cabbage") surgery, heart bypass or bypass surgery, is performed to restore blood flow by surgically intervening to an obstructed coronary artery. It uses blood vessels taken from another part of the patient’s body to bypass blocked or narrowed coronary arteries. By creating this new pathway, it improves blood and oxygen flow to the patient’s heart muscle.
Patients may have severe chest pain caused by narrowing of several arteries and vessels cannot provide muscles enough blood and oxygen even during a light exercises or at rest. Although angioplasty is the first considered treatment, for some types of blockages, coronary bypass surgery may be the best option.
If the patient has more than one diseased coronary artery and the heart's main pumping chamber — the left ventricle — isn't functioning well.
If the left main coronary artery is severely narrowed or blocked. This artery supplies most of the blood to the left ventricle.
The arterial blockage is inappropriate for angioplasty such as a previous stent placement failed or restenosis occurred. In this case, it not suitable for the patient to undergo a CABG.
Coronary bypass surgery may also be performed for emergency situations, such as a heart attack, vessel injury.
Neither surgery nor endovascular treatment techniques does not cure the underlying heart disease that caused blockages in the first place. These treatment modalities are basically treating the outcome of the underlying condition.
Patients will be asleep during the operation. The surgery takes 3-6 hours and requires general anesthesia. The duration depends on the procedures that need to performed and complexity of the patient’s case.
After the surgery patients needs to rest in the intensive care unit for a few days (1or 2 days depending the patient’s case)
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